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ASTM A 178 / ASME SA 178 

Eletric Resistance Weled Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes

This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 178/A 178M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon ( ε) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This specification has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. Consult the DoD Index of Specifications and Standards for specific year of issue which has been adopted by the Department of Defense.


1.1 This specification covers minimum-wall-thickness, electric-resistance-welded tubes made of carbon steel and carbon-manganese steel intended for use as boiler tubes, boiler flues, superheater flues, and safe ends. 

NOTE 1 ? Type Cand D tubes are not suitable for safe-ending for forge welding. 

1.2 The tubing sizes and thicknesses usually furnished to this specification are 1/2 to 5 in. [12.7 to 127 mm] in outside diameter and 0.035 to 0.320 in. [0.9 to 8.1 mm], inclusive, in minimum wall thickness. Tubing having other dimensions may be furnished, provided such tubes comply with all other requirements of this specification.

1.3 Mechanical property requirements do not apply to tubing smaller than 1/8 in. [3.2 mm[ in inside diameter or 0.015 in. [0.4 mm] in thickness.

1.4 When these products are to be used in applications conforming to ISO Recommendations for Boiler Construction the requirements of this Specification A 520 shall supplement and supersede the requirements of this specification.

1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. W within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must b used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the specification. The inch-pound units shall apply unless the "M" designation of this specified in the order.Chemical Requirements

Element Composition, %
Grade A,
Low-Carbon Steel
Grade C,
Medium-Carbon Steel
Grade D,
Carbon-Man-ganese Steel
Carbon 0.06-0.18 0.35 max 0.27 max
Manganese 0.27-0.63 0.80 max 1.00-1.50
Phosphorus, max 0.035 0.035 0.030
Sulfur, max 0.035 0.035 0.015
Silicon ... ... 0.10 min

Tensile Requirements

Grade C and D tubes shall conform to the requirements as to tensile properties prescribed in Table2. 
Note 3: Explanatory Note-For purposes of design the following tensile propertiesmay be assumed for Grade A tubes:

Tensile strength, min, kis [MPa] 47 [325]
Yield Strength, min, ksi [MPa] 26 [180]
Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, % 35

Crush Test

When required by the purchaser, crushing tests shall be made on sections of tube 2 1/2 in. [63 mm] in length
which shall stand crushing longitudinally without cracking, spliting, or opening at the weld, as follows:

Wall Thickness of Tubes, in. [mm] Height of Crushed Section, in. [mm]
Grade A Tubes Grade C and D Tubes
0.135 [3.43] and under 3/4 [19] or until outside folds are in contact Crush tests not required
Over 0.135 [3.43] 1 1/4 [32] ...

For tubing less than 1 in. [25.4 mm] in outside diameter, the length of the specimen shall be 2 1/2 times the outside 
diameter of the tube. Slight surface checks shall not be cause for rejection.

Material Comparison Tables (ASTM ¡æKS, JIS, DIN, BS, NBN, NF, UNI)

KS/JIS Symbol KS/JIS Numbe Remarks DIN Type DIN
Remarks B.S
B.S Grade NBN Type NBN Grade Remarks AFNOR Type NF Number Ramarks UNI Type UNI Number Ramarks
A 178 C-Steel Electric-Resistance-Welded Boiler Tubes
Graade A K01200 STBH 340 / STB 35 D3563 / G3461 St 37.8 17177 1.0315 (7) 3059 ERW 320 (3) (3)
Grade c K03503 SHBH 410 / STB 42 D3563 / G3461 St 42.8 17177 1.0498 (7) (3) (3)

JIS Number and Corrensponding Foreign Standards

Standard Number Grade Tupe Standard
Grade Tupe Standard
Grade Tupe Standard
Grade Tupe Standard Number Grade Tupe Standard Number Grade Tupe
G3461 STB340 C A161 LC C 3059 HFS320 C       A49-245 TS34e C       C010
  (STB35)   A192 - C " CFS320 C       " TS34c C        
      A226 - C " ERW320 C                    
A556 GrA2 C " CEW320 C
      A557 GrA2 C " S1 360 C                    
            " S2 360 C                    
            " ERW 360 C                    
            " CEW360 C                    
            3606 ERW320 C                    
            " CEW320 C                    
            " CFS320 C                    
  STB410 C A179 GrC C 3059 S1 440 C 17175 St45.8 C A49-213 TU42c C 2604/2 TS9H C  
  (STB42)   A210 GrA1 C " S2 440 C 17177 St42.8 C A49-215 TU42c C " TW9H C  
      A556 GrB2 C " ERW 440 C       A49-243 TS42c          
      A557 GrB2 C " CEW 440 C       A49-245 TS42c          
            3602 HFS 410 C       " TS42c          
            " CFS 410 C                    
            " ERW 410 C                    
            " CEW 410 C                    
            3606 ERW 440 C                    
            " CEW 440 C                    
            " CFS 440 C                    
STB510 C             C 17175 19Mn5 C A49-213 TU52C C 2604/2 TS18 C  
(STB52)               C       A49-248 TU52C C        

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